Below is a list of our more recent publications

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Follow this link to access Simona Buetti’s reprint archive
Follow this link to access Alejandro Lleras’s reprint archive

Link to Vision Lab GitHub page 


Cui, A. Y., Lleras, A., & Buetti S. (in press). Complex background information slows down parallel search efficiency by reducing the strength of inter-item interactions. 

Bogdan, P., Dolcos, S., Buetti, S., Lleras, A., & Dolcos, F. (in press). Investigating the Suitability of Online Eye-Tracking for Psychological Research: Evidence from Comparisons with In-Person Data Using Emotion-Attention Interaction Tasks. Behavior Research Methods.

Bogdan, P., Dolcos, S., Federmeier, K., Lleras, A., Schwab, H., & Dolcos, F. (in press). Emotional Dissociations in Temporal Associations: Opposing Effects of Arousal on Memory for Details Surrounding Unpleasant Events. Emotion and Cognition.


^Lleras, A., ^Buetti, S. & Xu, Z.J. Incorporating the properties of peripheral vision into theories of visual search. Nat Rev Psychol (2022).  SharedIt link ^Shared co-first authorship

Dolcos, F., Katsumi, Y., Bogdan, P. C., Shen, C., Jun, S., Buetti, S., Lleras, A., Freeman Bost, K., Weymar, M., & Dolcos, S. (2020). The impact of Focused Attention on subsequent emotional recollection: A functional MRI investigation. Neuropsychologia, 138(10):107338. 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2020.107338. Part of the Neupsychologia Special Issue in Honor of Endel Tulving.


Lively Z, Ng GJP, Buetti S, Lleras A. (2021). Irrelevant features of distractors in intervening visual search tasks cause active visual working memory interference – the more difficult the search task, the more interference it causes. Attention, Perception, and Psychophysics, 83(6):2410-2429. doi: 10.3758/s13414-021-02318-w. Epub 2021 May 11. PMID: 33977408.

Ng, G.J.P., Patel, T. N., Buetti, S., & Lleras, A. (2021). Prioritization in Visual Attention Does Not Work the Way You Think It Does. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human, Perception and Performance. 47(2):252-268. doi: 10.1037/xhp0000887. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Xu, J., Lleras, A., Shao, Y., & Buetti, S. (2021). Distractor–distractor interactions in visual search for oriented targets explain the increased difficulty observed in nonlinearly separable conditions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human, Perception and Performance, 47(9), 1274-1297.

Xu, Z., Lleras, A. & Buetti, S. Predicting how surface texture and shape combine in the human visual system to direct attention. Nature Scientific Reports, 11, 6170 (2021).

Spielmann, J., Kroeper, K. M., Lleras, A., & Fox Tree, J. E. (2021). Introduction to the special issue on the impact of race on psychological processes.Translational Issues in Psychological Science, 7(4), 357–362.


Buetti, S., Xue, F., Liu, Q., Hur, J., Ng, G. J. P., & Heller, W. (2020). Perceived control in the Lab and in Daily Life Impact Emotion-Induced Temporal Distortions. Timing & Time Perception. 1-35.

Dolcos, F., Bogdan, P. C., O’Brien, M., Iordan, A. D., Madison, A., Buetti, S., Lleras, A., Dolcos, S. (2020). The Impact of Focused Attention on Emotional Evaluation: An Eye-Tracking Investigation. Emotion. 10.1037/emo0000895

Lleras, A., Wang. Z., Ng., G.J.P., Ballew, K., Xu, J., & Buetti, S. (2020). A target contrast signal theory of parallel processing in goal-directed search. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 82, 394-425.

Weldon, A.L., Liu, Q., Heller, W. & Buetti, S. (2020). Response interference by central foils is modulated by dimensions of depression and anxiety. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 82(4), 1818–1834 (2020).


Buetti, S., Xu, J., & Lleras, A. (2019). Predicting how color and shape combine in the human visual system to direct attention. Nature Scientific Reports, 9, 20258, .

Ng, G.J.P., Buetti, S., Dolcos, S., Dolcos, F., & Lleras, A. (2019). Distractor rejection in parallel search tasks takes time but does not benefit from context repetition. Visual Cognition, 27(5-8),609-625.

Lleras, A., Wang, Z., Madison, A., & Buetti, S. (2019). Predicting Search Performance in Heterogeneous Scenes: Quantifying the Impact of Homogeneity Effects in Efficient Search. Collabra: Psychology, 5(1), 2.


Madison, A., Lleras, A., & Buetti, S. (2018). The role of crowding in parallel search: Peripheral pooling is not responsible for logarithmic efficiency in parallel search. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 80(2), 352-373.

Ng, G. J. P., Lleras, A., & Buetti, S. (2018). Fixed-target efficient search has logarithmic efficiency with and without eye movements. Attention Perception & Psychophysics, 80(7), 1752:1762

Wang, Z., Lleras, A. & Buetti, S. (2018). Parallel, exhaustive processing underlies logarithmic search functions: Visual search with cortical magnification. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 25(4), 1343–1350.


Shapiro, K. L., Hanslmayr, S., Enns, J. T., & Lleras, A. (2017). Alpha, beta: the rhythm of the attentional blink. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review,

Lleras, A., Cronin, D. A., Madison, A. M., Wang, Z., & Buetti, S. (2017). Oh the number of things you will process (in parallel)! Commentary on Hulleman & Olivers (in press). Behavioral & Brain Sciences, e146.

Ahn, J., Patel, T. N., Buetti, S., & Lleras, A. (2017). Exploring the contributions of spatial and non-spatial working memory to priming of pop-out. Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, 79(4), 1012-1026.

Lleras, A., Chu, H., & Buetti, S. (2017). Can we ‘apply’ the findings of Forster and Lavie (2008)? On the generalizability of attentional capture effects under varying levels of perceptual load. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 23(2), 158-179.

Wang, Z., Buetti, S., & Lleras, A. (2017). Predicting Search Performance in Heterogeneous Visual Search Scenes with Real-World Objects. Collabra: Psychology, 3(1), 6.

Zhou, L.F., Buetti, S., Lu, S., & Cai, Y.-C. (2017). Attentional Effect on Contrast Appearance: From Enhancement to Attenuation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance.


Buetti, S., & Lleras, A. (2016). Distractibility is a function of engagement, not task difficulty: Evidence from a new oculomotor capture paradigm. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 145(10),1382-1405.

Buetti, S., Cronin, D. A., Madison, A. M., Wang, Z., & Lleras, A. (2016). Towards a better understanding of parallel visual processing in human vision: Evidence for exhaustive analysis of visual information. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 145(6), 672-707.

Panova, T., & Lleras, A. (2016). Avoidance or boredom: Negative mental health outcomes associated with use of Information and Communication Technologies depend on users’ motivations. Computers in Human Behavior, 58: 249-258.


Michal, A., Lleras, A., & Beck, D. (2014). Relative contributions of task-relevant and task-irrelevant dimensions in priming of pop-out. Journal of Vision, 14(12):14.0.1167/14.12.14.

Scalf, P.E., Ahn, J.W., Beck, D.M., & Lleras, A. (2014). Trial history effects in the ventral attentional network. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 26(12): 2789-97.

Lleras, A., & Buetti, S. (2014). Not all “distractor” tags are created equal: using a search asymmetry to dissociate the inter-trial effects caused by different forms of distractors. Frontiers in Psychology, 5:669.

Buetti, S., Lleras, A., & Moore, C. M. (2014). The flanker effect does not reflect the processing of “task-irrelevant” stimuli: Evidence from inattentional blindness. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 21(5), 1231-1237.

Wan, X., Tian, L., & Lleras, A. (2014). Age-related differences in the distractor previewing effect with schematic faces of emotions. Neuropsychology, development, and cognition. Section B, Aging, neuropsychology and cognition, 21(4):386-410.

Tseng Y.-C., Glaser J.I., Caddigan E., Lleras A. (2014). Modeling the Effect of Selection History on Pop-Out Visual Search. PLoS ONE 9(3): e89996.

Mereu, S., Zacks, J.M., Kurby, C. A., & Lleras, A. (2014). The Role of Prediction In Perception: Evidence From Interrupted Visual Search. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 40(4): 1372-89.


Buetti, S., Tamietto, M., Hervais-Adelman, A., Kerzel, D., de Gelder, B., & Pegna, A. (2013). Dissociation between goal-directed and discrete response localization in a patient with bilateral cortical blindness. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 25(10).

Buetti, S., & Lleras, A. (2013). Vision. In E. Diener & R. Biswas-Diener (Eds), Noba textbook series: Psychology. Champaign, IL: DEF Publishers.

Lleras, A., Buetti, S, & Mordkoff, J.T. (2013). When do the effects of distractors provide a measure of distractibility? In Brian R. Ross (Ed) Psychology of Learning and Motivation Vol. 59, pp, 261-315.

Tseng, Y. C., & Lleras, A. (2013). Rewarding context accelerates implicit guidance in visual search. Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, 75(2), 287-298.

Mereu, S., & Lleras, A. (2013). Feelings of control restore distorted time perception of emotionally charged events. Consciousness & Cognition, 22, 306-314.


Buetti, S., & Lleras, A. (2012). Perceiving control over aversive
and fearful events can alter how we experience those events: an investigation of time perception in spider-fearful individuals. Frontiers in Emotion Science (cross linked with Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience).

Mathewson, K. E., Prudhomme, C., Fabiani, M., Beck, D. M., Lleras, A., Gratton, G. (in press). Making waves in the stream of consciousness: entraining oscillations in EEG alpha and fluctuations in visual awareness with rhythmic visual stimulation. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 24(12), 2321-2333.

Adam, J. J., Buetti, S., & Kerzel, D. (2012). Coordinated Flexibility: How Initial Gaze Position Modulates Eye-Hand Coordination and Reaching. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 38(4), 891-901.

Kerzel, D., & Buetti, S. (2012). Approach and avoidance movements are unaffected by cognitive conflict: a comparison of Simon effect and stimulus-response compatibility. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 19(3), 456-461.

Buetti, S., Juan, E., Rinck, M. & Kerzel, D. (2012). Affective states leak into movement execution: Automatic avoidance of threatening stimuli in fear of spider is visible in reach trajectories. Cognition & Emotion,


Wan, X., Voss, M., & Lleras, A. (2011). Age-Related Effects in Inter-Trial Inhibition of Attention. Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition, 18(5), 562-576.

Ariga, A., & Lleras, A. (2011). Brief and rare mental “breaks” keep you focused: deactivation and reactivation of task goals preempt vigilance decrements. Cognition, 118(3), 439-443.

Lleras, A., Porporino, M., Burack, J., & Enns, J. T. (2011). Rapid resumption of an interrupted search is not influenced by age-related improvements in search efficiency. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 109 (1), 58-72.

Mathewson, K. E., Lleras, A, Beck, D. M., Fabiani, M., Ro, T., & Gratton, G. (2011). Pulsed Out of Awareness: EEG Alpha oscillations represent a pulsed inhibition of ongoing cortical processing. Frontiers in Perception Science, 2(99), 1-15.


Caddigan, E., & Lleras, A. (2010). Saccadic repulsion in pop-out search: how a target’s dodgy history can push the eyes away from it. Journal of Vision, 10 (14).

Mathewson, K. E., Fabiani, M., Gratton, G., Beck, D. M., & Lleras, A. (2010). Rescuing stimuli from invisibility: inducing a momentary release from visual masking with pre-target entrainment. Cognition, 115, 186-191.

Wan, X., & Lleras, A. (2010). The Effect of Feature Discriminability on the Inter-Trial Inhibition of Focused Attention. Visual Cognition, 18, 920-944.

Enns, J.T., Lleras, A., & Moore, C.M. (2010). Object updating: a force for perceptual continuity and scene stability in human vision. In R. Nijhawan (Ed.) Problems of space and time in perception and action. pp. 503-520. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, MA, USA.

Mathewson, K. E., Fabiani, M., Gratton, G., Beck, D. M., & Lleras, A. (2010). Making waves in the stream of consciousness: Elliciting predictable oscillations in visual awareness with pretarget entrainment at 12 Hz. Proceedings of the Object Perception Attention and Memory Workshop, Boston, MA, Nov. 19, 2009. Visual Cognition, 18(1), 137-141.

Kerzel, D., Gauch, A., & Buetti, S. (2010). Involuntary attention with uncertainty: Peripheral cues improve perception of masked letters, but may impair perception of low-contrast letters. Journal of Vision, 10(12):12, 1-13.

Kerzel, D., Zarian, L., Gauch, A., & Buetti, S. (2010). Large effects of peripheral cues on appearance correlate with low precision. Journal of Vision, 10(11): 26, 1-14.

Buetti, S., & Kerzel, D. (2010). Effects of saccades and response type on the Simon effect: If you look at the stimulus, the Simon effect may be gone. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 63, 2172-1289.


Buetti, S., & Kerzel, D. (2009). Conflicts during response selection affect response programming: Reactions towards the source of stimulation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 35(3) 816-834.

Lleras, A., Levinthal, B. R., & Kawahara, J. (2009). The remains of the trial: Goal-determined inter-trial suppression of selective attention. In Narayanan Srinivasan, editors: Progress in Brain Research, Vol 176, ATTENTION, Narayanan Srivanasan. The Netherlands: Elsevier, 2009, 195-213. ERRATUM: in Figure 4 (page 202), the labels on the two bars are reversed: “Target previewed” should read “Distractor previewed” and vice-versa.

Lleras, A., & Enns, J. T. (2009). Focused spatial attention is independent of rapid resumption of an interrupted search. Perception & Psychophysics, 71, 565-577.

Lleras, A., Kawahara, J., & Levinthal, B. R. (2009). Past rejections lead to future misses: Selection-related inhibition produces blink-like misses of future (easily detectable) events. Journal of Vision,9(3):26,1-12.

Ambinder, M. S., & Lleras, A. (2009). Temporal tuning and attentional gating: two distinct attentional mechanisms on the perception of rapid serial visual events. Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, 71, 1495-1506.

Thomas, L. E., & Lleras, A. (2009). Covert shifts of attention function as an implicit aid to insight. Cognition, 111, 168-174.

Thomas, L. E., & Lleras, A. (2009). Inhibitory tagging in an interrupted visual search. Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, 71, 1241-1250.

Thomas, L. E., & Lleras, A. (2009). Swinging into thought: directed movement guides insight in problem solving. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 16,719-723.


Buetti, S., & Kerzel, D. (2008). Time course of the Simon effect in pointing movements for horizontal, vertical, and acoustic stimuli: Evidence for a common mechanism underlying the Simon effect. Acta Psychologica, 129(3), 420-428.

Lleras, A., Kawahara, J., Wan, X. I., Ariga, A. (2008). Inter-trial inhibition of focused attention in pop-out search. Perception & Psychophysics, 70, 114-131. ERRATUM: in Figure 5, page 126, there is a missing “0” on every value on the x axis. Values should read: 0, 100, 200, 300, 400 (ms), rather than 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40.

Enns, J.T., & Lleras, A. (2008). What’s next? New evidence for prediction in human vision. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 12, 327-333.

Shin, E., Wan, X. I., Fabiani, M., Gratton, G., & Lleras, A. (2008). Electrophysiological evidence of feature-based inhibition of focused attention across consecutive trials. Psychophysiology, 45, 804-811.

Levinthal, B. R., & Lleras, A. (2008). Inter-trial inhibition of attention to features is modulated by task relevance. Journal of Vision, 8(15), 1-15.

Levinthal, B. R., & Lleras, A. (2008).  Context-free inhibition: attentional biases transfer strongly across temporal and spatial search tasks. Visual Cognition, 16, 1119-1123.


Bennett, J. D., Lleras, A., Oriet, C., & Enns, J. T. (2007). A Negative Compatibility Effect in Priming of Emotional Faces. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 14, 908-912.

Levinthal, B. R., & Lleras, A. (2007).The unique contributions of retinal size and perceived size on change detection. Proceedings of the Object Perception Attention and Memory Workshop, Long Beach, CA, Nov. 15, 2007. Visual Cognition, 15, 101-105.

Lleras, A., Rensink, R. A., & Enns, J. T. (2007). Consequences of display changes during interrupted visual search: rapid resumption is target specific. Perception & Psychophysics, 69(6), 980-993.

Thomas, L. E., Lleras, A. (2007). Moving eyes and moving thought: on the spatial compatibility between eye movements and cognition. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 14, 663-668.

van Zoest, W., Lleras, A., Kingstone, A., & Enns, J. T. (2007). In sight, out of mind: the role of eye movements in the rapid resumption of visual search. Perception & Psychophysics, 69, 1204-1217.

von Mühlenen, A., & Lleras, A. (2007). No-onset looming motion guides spatial attention. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance, 33, 1297-1310.


Lleras, A., & Moore, C. M. (2006). What you see is what you get: Functional equivalence of a perceptually filled-in surface and a physically presented stimulus. Psychological Science, 17, 876-881.

Lleras, A., & Enns, J. T. (2006). How Much Like a Target can a Mask Be? Geometric, Spatial, and Temporal Similarity in Priming — A Reply to Schlaghecken and Eimer. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 135, 495-500.

Simons, D., Lleras, A., Martinez-Conde, S, Slichter, D., Caddigan, E., & Nevarez, G. (2006). Induced visual fading of complex images.
Journal of Vision. Journal of Vision, 6, 1093-1101.

Thomas, L. E., Ambinder, M. S., Hsieh, B., Levinthal, B., Crowell, J. A., Irwin, D. E., Kramer, A. F., Lleras, A., Simons, D. J., Wang, R. F. (2006). Fruitful Visual Search: Inhibition of Return in a Virtual Foraging Task. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 13, 891-895.

Enns, J. T., Lleras, A., & Di Lollo, V. (2006). Three aspects of visual masking are informed by reentrant modeling: object substitution, feature migration, and action priming. Invited chapter in B. Breitmeyer and H. Ogmen (Eds.) The First Half Second. (pp: 127-147). MIT press. Cambridge, MA.


Lleras, A., Rensink, R. A., & Enns, J. T. (2005). Rapid resumption of interrupted visual search: new insights on the interaction between vision and memory. Psychological Science, 16, 684-688.

Lleras, A., & Enns, J. T. (2005). Updating a cautionary tale of masked priming: a reply to Klapp (2005). Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 134, 436-440.

Moore, C. M., & Lleras, A. (2005). On the role of object representations in substitution masking. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 31, 1171-1180.


Lleras, A., & Enns, J. T. (2004). Negative Compatibility or Object Updating? A Cautionary Tale of Mask-Dependent Priming. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 133, 475-493.

Lleras, A., & von Mühlenen, A. (2004). Spatial context and top-down strategies in visual search. Spatial Vision, 17, 465-482.

Lleras, A., Moore, C. M., & Mordkoff, J. T. (2004). Looking for the source of the Simon Effect: evidence for multiple codes. American Journal of Psychology, 117, 531-542.

Moore, C. M., Lleras, A., Grosjean, M., & Marrara, M. T. (2004). Using inattentional blindness as an operational definition of unattended: The case of a response-end effect. Visual Cognition, 11(6), 705-719.


Lleras A., & Moore C. M. (2003). When the target becomes the mask: using apparent motion to isolate the object-level component of object substitution masking. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance, 29, 106-120.

Moore, C. M., Grosjean, M, & Lleras, A. (2003). Using inattentional blindness as an operational definition of unattended: The case of surface completion. Visual Cognition, 10, 299-318.


Moore, C. M., Elsinger, C. L., & Lleras, A. (2001). Visual attention and the apprehension of spatial relations: the case of depth. Perception & Psychophysics, 63, 595-606.