Cosmic Rays, Gamma Rays, and Neutrinos

The most violent environments in the present-day cosmos give rise to the most energetic particles in nature.  We use the highest energy photons (gamma rays), protons and nuclei (cosmic rays), and ghostly neutrinos, together to probe physics at the extremes–from supernova explosions to supermassive black hole jets to galaxy clusters. In turn, the interactions of these particles with their environments determine the conditions for star and planet formation, and for the evolution of interstellar matter and galaxy evolution.