Near-Earth Supernovae

When Stars Attack!   Radioactive Signatures of Prehistoric Supernovae

The most massive stars are the celebrities of the cosmos: they are very rare, but live extravagantly and die in spectacular and violent supernova explosions. While these events are awesome to observe, they can take a sinister shade when they occur closer to home, because an explosion inside a certain “minimum safe distance” would pose a grave threat to Earthlings.

Recently we have learned that a star exploded near the Earth about 3 million years ago. Radioactive iron atoms (iron-60, or 60Fe) have been found in ancient samples of deep-ocean material found around the globe, and also on the Moon. These unique atoms are tiny, telltale samples of debris from the supernova explosion. Thus, for the first time we can use sea sediments and lunar cores as telescopes, revealing explosions before recorded human history, and probing the nuclear fires that power exploding stars. Furthermore, an explosion so close to Earth was probably a “near miss,” which emitted intense and possibly harmful radiation.

White Paper

This far-reaching subject weaves together the work of a diverse community of scientists.  Many of them were a part of a recent near-Earth supernova White Paper for the Astro2020 Decadal Survey of Astronomy and Astrophysics:

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Supernova Collisions with the Solar System.

Images from simulations of a supernova  impact on the solar system.  The supernova blast violently pushes the solar wind, compressing it to within the inner solar system, more than tenfold times closer than its current reach far beyond Pluto.   Citation:   Fields, Athanassiadou, and Johnson (2008).

Movie: Animation of a supernova blast hitting the solar system. Citation: Fields, Athanassiadou, and Johnson (2008)
Radioactivity-Based DISTANCE TO THE SUPERNOVA

The measured abundance of supernova-produced radioactive iron-60 (60Fe) depends on: (a) how much 60Fe the supernova makes (the nucleosynthesis yield), and (b) how far away the supernova explodes. Thus if we use supernova models to estimate the 60Fe yield, we can infer the supernova distance.  For the experts, this analysis is completely analogous to the calculation of a luminosity distance:  here, the yield plays the role of luminosity, and the 60Fe surface density plays the role of flux.  Hence we refer to this as a “radioactivity distance.”   This idea goes back to the original Ellis, Fields, and Schramm (1996) analysis.  Figure citation:  Fry, Fields, and Ellis (2015).

“Radioactivity distance” to the supernova that deposited live iron-60 on the deep ocean. Plotted are all known iron-60 sources: core-collapse supernovae (blue points), AGB stars (red points), thermonuclear or Type Ia supernovae (TNSN), and kilonovae (KN). Also shown are important distance limits: kill radius (dashed red/black), and fadeaway distance (yellow). Citation: Fry, Fields, and Ellis (2015).
Supernova Dust distribution on the Moon

If supernova dust is entrained with (that is, moves along with) the gas component of the blast, then the dust grains should arrive in the inner solar system as a hail of particles with high velocities and a uniform direction that points back to the supernova.  In this case, the distribution of supernova grain deposition on the Moon will reflect the direction of supernova origin.  The distribution is averaged over longitudes due to the Moon’s rotation, but the latitude distribution retains information about the supernova direction.  That is, the Moon acts as an antenna to point to the supernova!  Citation:  Fry, Fields, and Ellis (2016).

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