|A key feature of future smart grids is demand response. With the integration of a two-way communication infrastructure, a smart grid allows its operator to monitor the production and usage of power in real time. Upon detection of significant events, the operator may send requests to intelligent loads to curtail their power usage. The operator can use load curtailments reactively for adaptation to the loss of generation capacity (e.g., with unpredictable renewable energy sources), or proactively for profit maximization by avoiding the use of expensive energy sources during peak hours.|
|In this work, we optimize operator profits for the different cases of load curtailment, under various practical constraints including the physical properties of the power system, and different cost and valuation functions for heterogeneous generation units and loads, respectively. We also investigate the requirements imposed by different cases of the load curtailment on the cyber infrastructure. In particular, we evaluate how the delay of cyber control impacts the frequency stability of the power grid during the load curtailment phase.
Our work addresses the following two main challenges faced by load curtailment scheduling:
In this work, we formulate different forms of profit-optimal load curtailments as constrained optimization problems, and investigate how to carry out the curtailment using cyber control to increase the power system’s frequency stability. Specifically, we consider physical constraints of the power system and delay of the cyber infrastructure. We also incorporate different cost and valuation functions of heterogeneous generating units and loads. Prior work on load curtailment in power grids has only sought to minimize the amount of load reduction when contingencies happen, and has not evaluated the value of load shedding and the impact of cyber control on the stability of power systems.
Our contributions are: