Find out how many tabanids are known from the U.S., general distinctions of the structure & behavior of horse flies from deer flies, and a typical life cycle of each, including insights into their control from Purdue University.
Discover more about the visual ecology of tabanids.
Alan, S.A., Day, J.F., Edman, J.D. 1987. Visual ecology of biting flies. Annual Review of Entomology 32: 297-216.
Barros, A.T.M. 2001. Seasonality and relative abundance of Tabanidae (Diptera) captured on horses in the Pantanal, Brazil. Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 96(7): 917-923.
Mullens, B.A. 2002. Horse flies and deer flies (Tabanidae). Chapter 13 pp. 263-277 in G. Mullen & L.A. Durdan, eds., Medical and Veterinary Entomology, Elsevier Science. (excerpt)
Sasaki, H. 2001. Comparison of capturing tabanid flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) by five different color traps in the fields. Appl. Entomol. Zool. 36(4): 515-519.