Experimental design

WHAT IS THE RELAMPAGO-CACTI EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN?
  • Repeated convective initiation and upscale growth (and null cases) will be sampled near Córdoba (70% of IOPs) and Mendoza (30%), contrasting the kinematics and microphysics in and surrounding storms, where mechanisms for severe weather production are inferred to be different, leveraging existing assets (operational radar, mesonets, soundings, CACTI+NASA/NOAA assets)
severe_reports-02
Figure from Rasmussen 2014 (GRL) showing locations of (a) floods and (b) large hail from newspaper reports; (c) figure from Altinger de Schwarzkopf and Rosso (1982) showing reports of tornadoes. Green circle is proposed SPOLKa 150 km range ring.
figure4
Experimental design for the RELAMPAGO fixed observatories in the SDC (top) and Mendoza (bottom) regions.
  • 3 sampling modules (pictured below) will address hypotheses for initiation, organization and severe weather production, and upscale growth/backbuilding
mobile_planning
Design of initiation (left), initial organization (center), and upscale growth/backbuilding (right) missions for RELAMPAGO mobile assets. Initially, separate sampling missions will be called for each case, based on forecasts. Pre-organized sites and missions will be carefully designed to avoid safety, communication and coordination issues. As experience grows during the campaign, we will attempt to coordinate missions with more complex objectives given the infrastructure and communications.
  • Soundings, surface obs, and aircraft will focus on sampling pre-, during- (with updraft sonde sampling) and post-convective environments, including cold pools, before and during events
aircraft_init
The DOE G-1 aircraft flight strategy for orographic cumulus events in horizontal and vertical plan views. Meridional, RHI (~zonal), and spiral flight legs are shown in black. The vertical plan view is shown in red in the horizontal plan view. Typical circulations for these events are shown in orange, and AMF-1 location with radar scans are also shown.
The flight strategy for deep convection in horizontal and vertical plan views. Convective inflow and outflow flight legs are shown in black and are flexible to changing depending on the evolution of each event.
The DOE G-1 flight strategy for deep convection in horizontal and vertical plan views. Convective inflow and outflow flight legs are shown in black and are flexible to changing depending on the evolution of each event.
  • Hydrometeorological project will quantify land surface forcing and flooding impacts (over 9 month period, with intensive streamflow sampling during 45-day RELAMPAGO IOP)

    Proposed locations of the NSF hydrometeorological network that will operate for the RELAMPAGO-EOP.
    Proposed locations of the NSF hydrometeorological network that will operate for the RELAMPAGO-EOP across the Carcarañá River basin.
  • Fixed radars, including the NCAR SPOLKa dual wavelength dual polarization radar, the DOE AMF-1 scanning and vertically pointing radars (operating at C, Ka, and W-band) and 1.4 MHz profiler, and the operational Argentinean radars, will perform microphysical and moisture/boundary, QPE sampling, while mobile radars (3 mobile Center for Severe Weather Research (CSWR) Doppler on Wheels (DOW) mobile radars, and the INPE Brazilian XPOL radar) will perform coordinated multi-Doppler scanning to obtain coincident high-res kinematic and microphysical information during storm evolution; all radars will observe convective triggering mechanisms
    (orographic and non-orographically forced)
  • South American universities and the Argentinean NWS will support observations, forecasting, manpower, logistics
  • Education and outreach will involve K-University students across the world through in person and virtual site visits and webinars in English, Spanish, and Portugese